Wednesday, 21 September 2016

Accident investigation

Welcome to



What is the need for investigating accidents?

The investigation

The Team

Aids Required

Responsiblities of Team



Structuring the investigation

The Initial Response

Identification of Evidence


Recording Evidence

Recording Evidence

Recording Evidence

Recording Evidence

Recording Evidence

Recording Evidence

Recording Evidence

Interviewing skills

Interviewing skills

Interviewing skills

Interviewing skills

Interviewing skills

Interviewing skills

Interviewing skills

Information Preparation

Root cause analysis

Accident Causation


Accident Investigation Models


Change and change Analysis

Change and change Analysis

Fault tree analysis

Fault tree analysis

Fault tree analysis

Report Writing

Report writing

Report writing


Thank you.

Welcome to 


žTo understand Accident Investigation process in order to conduct more effective accident investigations at work place.
žUnderstanding of various techniques in Accident Investigation Process

žTo identify root causes and recommend preventive measures.




Should consist of:
žThe Health and Safety Officer
žThe local Manager/Supervisor
žThe local Safety Rep/Responsible Person
žAn expert in a particular field (if needed)

žWho else – discuss!
Aids Required

Toolkit list:
žCamera, including films etc
žTape recorder/Personal dictaphone
žMobile Telephone
žTape measure
žClipboard/Pens etc
žColoured chalk
žBarrier Tape
žKeep out signs
žProtective Gloves/latex
žAbsorbent Cloths/tissue

žPlastic Bags - waterproof
Responsibilities of Team

žTake the control of the accident scene
žPrevent further injury/damage/loss
žPreserve evidence
žLog/measure facts
žNote environmental evidence
žIsolate/interview genuine witnesses/staff/persons in the vicinity
žCheck relevant documentation
žCommunicate/liase with other team members/mgt
žCo-ordinate ongoing investigation information
žDetermine causes
žPrepare/complete accident investigation report
žInfluence changes necessary to prevent recurrence


žLighting conditions
žSpace constraints
žCondition of flooring
žWet/slippery conditions

žRisk Assessments
žTraining Records
žMonitoring Procedures



Take control at the scene
žMake sure you don’t injure yourself
žPrevent secondary accidents
žCall for a first aider/emergency services
žCall for Accident Investigation team
žPreserve accident scene


Critical in any investigation identify
žSequence of events
žOutcome   (Near misses, Major injuries or Fatal)


Evidence must be factual
žit may be something tangible
žit may be the environmental conditions which prevailed at accident time


Recording surroundings:
žIsolate the area /deal with any injured person(s) first
žObserve position of injured person(s)
žTime of day/Date
žEnvironment conditions

Recording surroundings:
žIsolate the area /deal with any injured person(s) first
žObserve position of injured person(s)
žTime of day/Date
žEnvironment conditions

Injured Person
žName/ D.O.B
žEmployment details
žTraining received
The Injury
lNature of injury

Four key areas:
žEquipment, Plant etc
žDocuments and Procedural Manuals

Care must be exercised when taking any statements or when handling witnesses

Site Accident Summary Reports:
žMedical Department
žSafety Advisor

žModel/make of
žSerial number
žIntended/actual use
žAny modifications
žMaintenance records
žSafety Checklists

Documents and Procedural manuals including:
žRisk assessments
žTechnical instructions
žPermits to work
žMethod statements
žRecords of training
žRecords of previous problems/accidents
All documentation must be accessible, evidence used must be recorded, numbered, cross-referenced and signed by originators


Successful Investigative Interviews:
žA two-way process
žNeed not be an interrogation
žEstablishment of  Trust
Examples of witnesses:
žThe Injured
žWitnesses to accidents / events (visual & aural)
žManagers and Supervisors

Key Points
žQuestioning should be open-ended to encourage witnesses to give evidence
žUseful to have visual aids
  though do not put suggestions forward to interviewee
žStatements should be written and signed with date and time of the interview
Personal needs
People need to feel:
žlistened to

Practical needs
žReasons for the interview
žImmediate & underlying causes can be established
žFacts accounted for/evaluated
žAgreement on actions to be taken
Improved techniques:
žListen and respond with empathy
žAsk for help and encourage involvement
žExplain and ask for explanations
žAlways be truthful




Accident Domino Theory

Accidents happen as a result of a sequence of events, the theory is, that if you interfere at any stage, the accident will not occur, and therefore there will be no loss or injury.

žChange and Change Analysis
žFault Tree Analysis


Change and Change Analysis

Change and Change Analysis

Fault Tree Analysis

žCan prevent investigator bias.
Identifies possible paths from basic cause;
Shows relationships, system deficiencies;
Considers ‘hardware’ and human failings;
Clear record of analytical path followed;
Rational basis for decision making.


Should consider:
1. What is the purpose of the report
2. Who will need it
3. Report structure
4. Style
5. Presentation

3. Report Structure
žMain body first
žConclusions & recommendations
žFinal stage: appendices/refs etc

4. Style
No ambiguous sentences
Overuse of adjectives etc
Conclusions - brief, to the point

5. Presentation
check layout
check content
check words used i.e punctuation/grammar

name & date

Once the draft report is completed ensure that the following is covered:
žCoherent description of the events leading up to the accident
žRational view of what should be done in the way of remedial actions


A successful accident investigation process should incorporate:
žA causal model representing a ‘system based approach
žInvolvement of key, relevant individuals
žProcedures/protocols to structure and support the investigation
žIdentification of both immediate and underlying causes
žDevelopment of recommendations that address the latter
žImplementation of these recommendations and update of relevant risk assessments
žFollow up to ensure, actions taken are successful
žFeedback to relevant parties to share learning
žDevelopment of an accessible database

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Abbreviation use for safety? (1) Accident investigation (1) Accident investigation Report? (1) Attitude (1) Authorized expose person? (1) Awareness - Electricity (1) Awareness - Malaria (1) Awareness - Swine Flu (1) Awareness - Typhoid (1) Awarness - cholara (1) Awarness message (36) Basic Electrical safety (1) Basic Orientation Training (1) Blasting awareness session (1) Carbone Monoxide (1) Chain Pulley Blocks (Do's) (1) Chain Pulley Blocks (Don'ts and Do's) (1) Classes of fire (1) communication and writen communication (1) Community unrest situation (1) competent persons? (1) Compressed Gas cylinder (1) confined space (2) confined space attendant? (1) Confined space awareness session (1) Confined space? (1) contingency plan - Accident / Incident (1) contingency plan - fire (1) contingency plan - Gas leak (1) Controlled area? (1) Cyclone (1) Defensive Driving (2) Density and specific Gravity (1) Do and Don't awareness session (1) Driving awareness session (1) Duties of a confined space attendant? (1) Earthquake (1) EHS Alert - Adverse Weather (1) EHS Alert - Air compressor (1) EHS Alert - Arc welding (1) EHS Alert - Bar Bending Machine (1) EHS Alert - Batching plant (1) EHS Alert - Cold weather (1) EHS ALERT - DENGUE (1) EHS Alert - Earth Quake (1) EHS Alert - Ebola (1) EHS Alert - Eye exposure to Portland cement (1) EHS Alert - Heat Stress (1) EHS Alert - Hot weather (1) EHS Alert - House Hold LPG (1) EHS Alert - Monsoon (1) EHS Alert - Motor cycle Helmet (1) EHS Alert - Paper (1) EHS Alert - Road / Traffic signs (1) EHS Alert - Snake Bite (1) Electrical safety (2) Electrical safety session (1) Element and Molecules (1) Emergency Evacuation Plan? 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(1) Hazards (1) Hazards in a confined space (1) Heart Attack (7) Heart attack awareness session (1) Heat (1) How can extinguish and common type of fire extinguisher? (1) How is the soil classified? What is the slope to be given for each type of soil while excavating? (1) How many scaffolding tags used in scaffolding? (1) How many type of Fall Protection system? (1) How many types of accident in construction area? (1) Hydro Testing (1) Importance of Tool-box meeting (1) In what circumstances fall protection system has to be used? (1) In what situation “ear protection is needed”? (1) In which condition a scaffold cannot be erected? (1) Inspect scaffold (1) INSTRUCTION FOR STORAGE OF ELECTRICIAN’S GLOVES AND PRECAUTION S TO BE TAKEN BEFORE & AFTER USE. (1) Investigation (1) Jab safety Analysis (JSA) (1) Ladder safety (1) Ladder safety (Do's and Don'ts) (1) Ladder safety (Do's) (1) Lifting plan? 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(1) RIGGING (1) Road Safety Prevention (1) Ropes and Chains (Don'ts and Do's) (1) Safe Work System (1) Safety and Maintanence Inspection (1) Safety Definitions (8) Safety during Gas cutting (1) Safety in Electricity (1) Safety in material handling (1) Safety in welding & grinding (1) Safety in welding and Gas cutting (1) Safety Poster (37) Safety poster competition (2) Safety Q&A (30) SCAFFOLD (1) Scaffolding (Do's) (2) Scaffolding (Dont's) (1) Silicosis (1) Slings inspected? (1) Slip (1) Space between the two ladder Rungs? (1) Stress Relieving (1) Summer Heat Stroke Awareness session (1) Tandum Lift? (1) THE PARTS OF CRANE? (1) Trip & Fall (1) Types of cranes? (1) Types of permits? (1) Use of accident Report? (1) Waste Management (1) Welcome to ISO -Learning session (1) Welcome to Road safety and Defensive Driving (1) Welding and Gas Cutting (3) What is near-miss? (1) What are the benefits of near-miss reporting? (1) What are the precautions to be taken for Welding? 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(1) What is Safety? (1) What is tag system? (1) What is the emergency evacuation procedure to follow in the event of a gas release? (1) What is the responsibility of Fire Watch? (1) What is Toolbox Talks? (1) What is trench? (1) WHAT IS WASTE MANAGEMENT? (1) What safety measure are required for SAFE CRANE OPERATION (1) Who can place a scaffold tag? (1) Who is your safety officer? (1) WHO MAKES AN ACCIDENT REPORT? (1) Why Safety Training is required? (2) width of walk-way (1) Work Management System (1) work permit? (1) Work Radius? (1) Working at height (1) Working in Confined Space (1) Workplace Heat illness (1)

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