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Wednesday, 21 September 2016

Confined space awareness session

Confined space awareness session


Objective



What is confined space?


Definitions


Typical confined spaces


Are Tranches confined spaces



Hazards in confined spaces?



Hazards - oxygen Deficiency



Hazards - oxygen Deficiency



Hazards - oxygen Deficiency


Hazards - oxygen Enrichment


Hazards -Complex Exposures


Hazards - Toxic & Flammable gases


Hydrogen Sulfide


Carbon Monoxide


Hazards -Toxic Gases

Hazards -Toxic Gases


Hazards -Toxic Gases


Hazards -Extreme Temparature


Hazards -Engulfment


Hazards -Electricity


Hazards -Other Hazards


Hazards -Confined space entry summary


Precautions


Categorizing work space


Confined space entry

Confined space entry




Confined space entry


Precautions - Ventilate


Precautions -oxygen Enrichment


Precautions -oxygen Enrichment


Precautions -Ventilate


Precautions -Isolate from all hazards


Air monitoring


Barrication


Standby / Rescue


Precautions -Summary


Precautions -Summary


Peptalk (tail board briefing)


PPE's


Respirators


Emergency Preparedness


Preparedness


Preparedness


confined space Entry


Hazards - oxygen Deficiency


Hazards - oxygen Deficiency


Thank you




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Welcome to
Confined Space awareness session


What is a Confined Space?

A space that:

Is large enough and so configured that an employee can enter bodily and perform work;
Has limited or restricted means of entry or exit;
Is not designed for continuous human occupancy.

Definitions

The entrant is the person who enters a confined space.
The attendant is the person who stays with the entrant  outside the confined space, and is responsible for assisting the entrant in exiting the confined space, and calling for emergency assistance when required.
The safety representative is the qualified person who evaluates the hazards, prescribes required equipment and precautions and issues the Confined Space Entry Permit.

Typical Confined Spaces

Boiler,  Degreaser,  Furnace
Pipeline,  Pit,  Pumping Station
Reaction or Process Vessel, Mills
Septic Tank,  Sewage Digester
Silo,  Storage Tank,  Barges
Sewer,  Utility Vault,  Manhole
Trenches,  Shafts,  Caissons, Tunnels
Tanks, Manholes
Hoppers
Ducts, Bins, Pits
 Are Trenches Confined spaces
Trenches, ravines and other excavations may also be considered confined spaces, if there is a potential for accumulation of toxic gases, engulfment and/or the depletion of oxygen.
Hazards in Confined Space  ?
Hazards – Oxygen Deficiency
Both animal and plant life
require oxygen to live. One of the
primary hazards of entering
confined spaces is oxygen
deficiency.
When oxygen is present in
concentrations less than 19.5%
the atmosphere is said to be

Hazards – Oxygen Deficiency

Processes which operate by the
principle of combustion use up
oxygen much faster than the
human respiration.
Products of combustion vary
with the fuel that is present and
the temperature of the combustion
reaction.  Welding, burning natural
gas, propane, gasoline, and diesel
engines are examples of combustion
processes.

Hazards – Oxygen Deficiency

Oxygen deficiency can be caused by several
processes:
Consumption:    Oxygen is used up by the person who is in the
  confined space and turned into carbon
  dioxide.
Displacement:  Denser materials push the oxygen out of
  the occupied space.
  ( Ex: LPG – 1.73)    
Reaction:  Oxygen reacts with other materials
  to make other compounds.
  (Ex: Oxidization (corrosion) 

Hazards – Oxygen Enrichment

Oxygen can also be present
in concentrations that are
too high.
Oxygen in concentrations
greater than 23% is too
oxygen rich and can cause
combustible materials to
ignite very quickly. 

Hazards – Complex Exposures

Many confined space
entries involve a
complex set of exposures
to mechanical, electrical,
pressure and chemical
hazards.


Hazards – Toxic & Flammable Gases

Manholes often remain
covered for long periods
of time.  Naturally
occurring toxins, such
as hydrogen sulfide
can accumulate inside of
manholes.

Manholes may also
accumulate highly
flammable gasses
such as methane
and ethane. Unlike
the gas we receive at
home, we cannot detect
some of these gases with
our sense of smell.

Hydrogen Sulfide

Decomposition of materials.  Human waste.
Rotten egg odor at low concentrations.
Possibly no warning at high concentrations.
   PPM  Effect  Time
  10 ppm  Permissible Exposure Level  8 Hours
  50 - 100  Mild Irritation - eyes, throat  1 Hour
    200 - 300  Significant Irritation  1 Hour
    500 -700  Unconsciousness,  Death  1/2 - 1 Hour
     >1000  Unconsciousness,  Death  Minutes

Carbon Monoxide

Odorless, Colorless Gas.
Combustion By-Product.
Quickly collapse at high concentrations.
   PPM  Effect  Time
     50  Permissible Exposure Level  8 Hours
    200  Slight headache, discomfort  3 Hours
       600  Headache, discomfort  1 Hour
  1000-2000  Confusion, nausea, headache  2 Hours
  1000-2000  Tendency to stagger  1 1/2 Hours
  1000-2000  Slight heart palpitation  30 Min.
  2000-2500  Unconsciousness  30 Min. 

Hazards – Toxic Gases

Toxic and flammable
materials are sometimes
illegally put into sanitary
and storm sewers.
Leaking tanks or spills
may migrate under
ground causing seepage
into manholes.

Material can leach
through soil from
many miles
away.

Hazards – Toxic Gases

Sudden releases of
fluid solids, such as
granulated salt, sugar,
or sand, liquids, and
dense gases can cause
engulfment of persons
inside underground
tanks, or pits.

When torrential forces
are suddenly released,
people may be struck
by moving objects , or
be pushed helplessly
downstream.

Hazards – Toxic Gases

Always test the
air at various levels
to be sure that the
entire space is safe.

Good air near the opening does NOT mean there is good air at the bottom!

Hazards – Extreme Temperature

Extremely hot or cold temperatures.
Steam cleaning of confined spaces.
Humidity factors.
Extremely cold liquids.
Work processes inside the confined space can increase temperature extremes.
Personal protective equipment.

Hazards – Engulfment

Loose, granular materials stored in bins and hoppers - grain, sand, coal, etc.
Crusting and bridging below a worker.
Flooding of confined space.
Water or sewage flow.

Hazards – Electricity

Workers in Confined space has more chance of Electrocution;
  Stands on Metal decks;
  Humidity;

Other Hazards
Noise
Amplified  due to acoustics within the space.
Damaged hearing, affect communication.
Slick / Wet Surfaces
Slips and falls.
Increased chance of electric shock.
Falling Objects
Topside openings expose workers inside confined space to falling objects.

Confined Space Entry - Summary

Confined space entry hazards can include:
  -  the presence of toxic substances
  -  insufficient oxygen, or too much oxygen
  -  engulfment
  -  presence of combustible gases and liquids
  -  process or equipment related hazards.
  -  conditions changing from nonhazardous
     to hazardous.

Precautions

Confined Space Entry

Each process hazard to which the entrant may be exposed, adjacent operations or processes, and scheduled activity are reviewed. For each hazard identified, countermeasures are detailed on the Confined Space Entry Permit.

Confined Space Entry

The safety representative tests the space for hazardous concentrations of known harmful substances, such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, and flammable liquid or gas.
The concentration of oxygen is measured at the same time.

Confined Space Entry

Required countermeasures  include
personal protective equipment
for hazards expected to be found
within the confined space.
Eye and head injuries are always
a potential, therefore safety glasses
and hard hats are required wear
for entrants.
Other conditions may require the
use of respirators, safety shoes,
protective gloves, and other
personal protective equipment.

Precautions – Ventilate

Dilution Ventilation
Use mechanical ventilation
Air Movers
Electric blowers & Fans 
Ventilate at the rate of at least four (4) volumes per hour
Larger spaces require more ventilation
Make sure air supply is not contaminated
Ventilation air supply must be from fresh air uncontaminated with flammables, toxins, etc.

Precautions – Ventilate

Dilution Ventilation
Use mechanical ventilation
Air Movers
Electric blowers & Fans 
Ventilate at the rate of at least four (4) volumes per hour
Larger spaces require more ventilation
Make sure air supply is not contaminated
Ventilation air supply must be from fresh air uncontaminated with flammables, toxins, etc.

Precautions – Oxygen Enrichment

If concentrations of
materials are found to
be at harmful levels,
the confined space
must be ventilated to
remove them before
entry.

Fresh outside
air is blown into
the space to dilute
and remove
contaminants, and
supply oxygen.

Precautions – Oxygen Enrichment

Should the concentration
of contaminants remain
at harmful levels,
respirators may have to
be worn to assure a safe
air supply.

Precautions – Ventilate

Exhaust Ventilation
Electric Ducted Fans and Blowers

Precautions – Isolate from all hazards

Close Valves
Double block & bleed, or
Blank flange
Empty the Space
Depressurize, vent & drain
Lockout/Tagout Equipment
Electrical sources
Rotating/reciprocating parts
Hazardous materials
Clean residue from the space

Air Monitoring

Entrants must constantly monitor the confined space for toxic gases, oxygen, and combustible gases.
Entrants will be issued a personal monitor to wear
for this purpose.

Entrants must leave the
confined space when the
monitor alarm is activated.
It is the attendant’s
responsibility to see that
the entrant leaves the
space during an alarm.

Barrication

Place warning signs where pedestrians can see them.
Signs must state the hazard and the required action.

Standby / Rescue

Worker assigned to remain outside the confined space and be in constant contact with the workers inside.
Know emergency rescue procedures.
50% of workers who die in confined spaces are would-be rescuers.
Trained in use of emergency rescue equipment and PPE.

Precautions – Summary

Required countermeasures  also include prevention of electrical shock hazards due to loss of  earth ground for portable tools. ELCB’s are required for portable  electric tooling.
There may also be a need to lockout and tag equipment both in the confined space and on adjacent equipment and processes.


Precautions – Summary

Confined spaces are  required to be labeled. Some spaces may have been overlooked.  Contact your safety representative
when in doubt.  It is up to you to obey signs and to follow
permit procedures before entry.

Pep Talk ( Tail Board Briefing)

Entire crew must attend
Attendants, entrants, entry supervisor
Review hazards of entry and work
Review PPE
Review procedure for contacting rescue
verify rescue available
Complete permit

PPE’s

Safety Shoes
Safety helmet
Gloves
Respirators
Self  Contained Breathing Apparatus  (SCBA)

Respirators

Air-Purifying Respirators
Filter dangerous substances from the air.
Must know the type and amount of hazardous substance present in the confined space.
NEVER use with oxygen deficiency!
Air-Supplying Respirators
Deliver a safe supply of breathing air from a tank or an uncontaminated area nearby.
Must be adequately monitored.

Emergency Preparedness

Means of emergency rescue must be readily available to the confined space entry attendant for
Emergency extrication of
entrants.

Preparedness

A means must be provided
for both safe normal entry
or exit , and emergency
extrication. Tripods with hoist, lifeline, and full body harness are often used for emergency extrication. Ladders may be used for ordinary entry and exit.

Preparedness

The attendant should attempt to remove the entrant from the confined space using tripods, hoist, and lifelines. Attendants are NOT  TO ENTER  CONFINED SPACES.  Lethal hazards may be present within the confined space.  Only properly equipped and trained emergency rescue personnel may enter confined spaces to make rescues.

Confined Space Entry

Hazards – Oxygen Deficiency

After oxygen is delivered
to body organs and used
by organ cells, it reacts
with carbon to make
carbon dioxide.  Red
blood cells carrying
carbon dioxide turn
blue.  Carbon dioxide  is
carried back to the lungs
by the red blood cells
and exhaled into the
surrounding atmosphere.

The human body requires
oxygen to carry out cellular
metabolism.  Oxygen is
brought in through the lungs
and transported to cells of
body organs by the red
blood cells.  When blood is
rich in oxygen it turns red.

Hazards – Oxygen Deficiency

Given a fixed amount of oxygen
as you would have in a confined
space,  respiration of oxygen
causes carbon dioxide to
increase.  When oxygen
decreases to less than 19.5%.
the atmosphere is said to be oxygen
deficient, putting occupants of
the confined space at risk of
losing consciousness and death. 

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