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Monday, 5 June 2017

First aid - Fracture


First Aid Fracture



First aid is the immediate care given to the victim of an accident or sudden illness before the arrival of a qualified expert. The purpose of first aid is to preserve life, assist recovery, prevent aggravation and minimize complications at later stage.
Fracture is the separation of a bone into two or more pieces under the action of stress. It is a medical condition in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone.


Types of Fracture:


Ø  Open fracture: It is also called as compound fractures. In this ski breaks causing open wound
Ø  Closed fracture: It is also called as Simple fractures. In this the bone is broken, but the skin is intact


Causes of Fractures:

In most cases, fractures are caused by fall from height, motor vehicle accidents and direct blow etc. Young children and older people are more prone to fractures because their bones are weaker.

Symptoms of a Fracture

Symptoms include one or more of the following:
Ø  Intense pain at the site of the injury that worsens with movement
Ø  Swelling, numbness, or bluish color of the injured area
Ø  Deformity of the limb or joint if the injury occurred in the arm or leg
Ø  Bone protruding through the skin
Ø  Heavy bleeding at the injury site
Ø  Limited mobility or inability to move a limb


First Aid for Fractures:   

For Open Fractures:

 

Ø  Make the victim lie flat and remove the clothing covering the wound.
Ø  Remove tight clothing, watches, jewellery anything that could impede circulation.
Ø  Apply direct pressure to the wound to stop bleeding and continue as long as the wound bleeds.
Ø  Cover the wounded area with a clean sterilized cloth or dressing.
Ø  Do not draw exposed bones back into the tissue.

Ø It should be treated immediately to prevent infection.
Ø  Do not breath on the wound or probe it
Ø  Keep the injured body part elevated, as it helps reduce bleeding and swelling
Ø  Immobilize the injured area and perform splint for the fracture till appropriate medical attention can be provided
  
Splinting:


Ø  A thin piece of wood or other rigid material used to immobilize a fractured or dislocated bone, or to maintain any part of the body in a fixed position.
Ø  Possible splints include a rolled up newspaper or strips of wood. Immobilize the area both above and below the injured bone



For Closed Fractures:  

Ø  Advise the victim to keep still. Support the injured part with your hands or ask a helper to do this, until it is immobilised.
Ø  Apply ice (wrapped in cloth) to the injured area to help reduce swelling and inflammation.
Ø  For firmer support, bandage the injured part to an unaffected part of the body.
Ø  Perform sling/splint for the fracture arm till appropriate medical attention can be provided.


Do Not: 

Ø  Do not move the person unless the broken bone is stable.
Ø  Do not move a person with an injured hip, pelvis, or upper leg unless it is absolutely necessary. If you must move the person, pull the person to safety by his clothes (such as by the shoulders of a shirt, a belt, or pant-legs).
Ø  Do not move a person who has a possible spine injury.
Ø  Do not attempt to straighten a bone or change its position.
Ø  Do not try to reposition a suspected spine injury.
Ø  Do not test a bone's ability to move.
If medical attention is not immediately available, apply RICE therapy:
Ø  Rest from any activity that increases your pain. Use crutches
Ø  Ice injured area. Use an ice pack or wrap the ice in a clean cloth. Do not place ice directly against the skin.
Ø  Compress by wrapping fracture lightly with an "ace" bandage or elastic ankle brace. Do not try to align the bones.
Ø  Elevate the injured part above the heart level.

 

“Safety isn't expensive, it’s priceless”

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